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設計

医療機器と医療従事者や患者をつなぐ役割を果たすのが、デバイスユーザーインターフェースです。インターフェースには、スクリーン、コントロールパネル、その他のユーザータッチポイントなどが含まれます。MRIスキャナーのような大型機器から血糖測定器のような小型のものまで、さまざまな機器がインターフェースを備えています。機器のタイプやユーザーインターフェースの大きさに関わらず、設計が十分でないと、有害な事象に繋がる誤使用を引き起こす可能性が発生します。

エマーゴの医療機器ユーザーインターフェース(UI)設計手法では、ユーザー調査を徹底的に行い、ユーザーインターフェース設計要件、および、機能面とデザイン面のバランスを見極めます。HFRDはお客さまと一緒に、数多くのコンセプトを作成し、プロトタイプを作り、その中で一番良いコンセプトでのユーザー試験を実施し、最適なソリューションに向けた製品設計をお手伝いします。

医療機器の設計と試作 

ユーザーインターフェース設計の過程で、インタラクティブなプロトタイプを作成する場合があります。実物モデルである場合も、バーチャルで作成する場合もあります。プロトタイプを使用することで、デザインプレゼンテーションやユーザビリティ試験の実施が可能となり、設計強度や改善ポイントについて知ることができます。また、文書上ではあいまいだった仕様を明確にした最終設計を提示することができます。

コントローラー、インジケーター、製品全体の形状などの物理的要素に加え、計測値、波形、アイコン、メニュー、ダイアログボックスなどのバーチャルな要素も、プロトタイプとしてモデル化することが可能です。SolidWorks、Adobe Illustrator、HTMLなどのツールを使用し、複雑な機器やソフトウェアアプリケーションのプロトタイプを、コンピューター上や実物(3Dプリンターで作成)のモデル、またはその両方を組み合わせたモデルで、数日内で作成致します。

ラベリングと添付文書(IFU)の設計と評価

医療機器業界では、ほとんどの規制当局が、機器(コンビネーション製品を含む)に正しいラベリングを施すことを求めています。通常、ラベリングには、製品上に貼付するラベルと使用説明書が含まれます。製品の物理的およびコンピューター上のユーザーインターフェースがよく設計されている場合であっても、ラベリングの設計が不十分だと、誤使用の原因になる可能性があります。HFRDは、お客さまが使用者に機器の正しい使用方法を伝えるお手伝いをいたします。下記のような項目を最適化し、わかりやすく、指示が明確なラベリングを設計いたします。

  • シンプルなインフォグラフィックス
  • わかりやすいアニメーション
  • 視覚的に心地よい構成
  • 明解な、タスク指向の情報レイアウト
  • 使用者指向の用語とシンボル

効果的なラベリングを開発するために、その他ユーザーインターフェースと同様にユーザー要件定義を実施し、最も見込みのあるコンセプトづくりを行うことから始めます。エマーゴは、実証済みのヒューマンファクターの原則や、数多くの経験を活かしてラベリングを設計します。正確なラベリングは、機器の安全、効率、使いやすさにつながります。

医療機器・体外診断用医療機器のユーザーインターフェース設計

弊社のハードウェア、ソフトウェアのユーザーインターフェース設計手法は、製品の性質により異なります。主要なユーザーインターフェース(UI)設計手法は以下のとおりです。

  • ユーザー調査実施、並びにビジョンステートメントの作成
  • ハザード分析、タスク分析、使用関連リスク分析の実施
  • 設計仕様の作成
  • 複数の設計コンセプトを作成
  • お客さまや使用者からのインプットをもとに設計コンセプトを絞り込みます。
  • 詳細設計の作成
  • プロトタイプの作成
  • 形成的評価(例:認知的ウォークスルー、形成的ユーザビリティ試験)の実施
  • 改良設計/最終設計の作成
  • 前3つのステップの繰り返し
  • 最終設計の評価(ヒューマンファクターとデザインを焦点とします)
  • 完成した設計内容の文書化

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User research leads to a richer understanding of the factors controlling the quality of user interactions with your product.

Our human factors “toolkit” contains many types of analyses that focus on mental and physical interactions with products.

Our medical device UI design approach leverages user research to achieve functional and aesthetic goals.

Summative usability testing, formative usability testing, expert critiques, heuristic analyses, cognitive walkthroughs, and more.

We want to make the world safer and better through HFE research, training, consulting, and program development.

Wiklund, Michael

General Manager, HFR&D
Allison Strochlic

STROCHLIC, Allison

Research Director

Merrick Kossack

Research Director

Mary Burton

User Experience Director
richard-featherstone

Richard Featherstone

Managing Director
Mark Tavano

Mark Tavano

Director, Sales - HFR&D

Coming soon: Designing for Safe Use (CRC Press, late 2018)

by Kimmy Ansems, Cory Costantino, Alix Dorfman, Brenda Van Geel, Jonathan Kendler, Rachel Aronchick, Valerie Ng, Ruben Post, Jon Tilliss, and Michael Wiklund

We – this book’s authors/designers – are members of the Human Factors Research and Design (HFR&D) at EMERGO by UL. In this book, we have consolidated the lessons we have learned about designing for safe use, that is, designing products that shield people from harm to the extent possible.

We settled on a target of 100 principles on how to make products safer. The principles pertain to hardware, software, document, and document design. Yes, settling on an even one hundred principles was a bit arbitrary and cliché. The myriad ways to design for safe use do not stop sharply at one hundred. But, we think we covered many of the key ones.

We elected to use the term “product” broadly to cover things one might consider to be systems, machines, equipment, instruments, tools, applications, manuals, and instructions. These are all things that need to be designed properly to eliminate or reduce the chance of harm due to normal use and foreseeable misuse.

Most of the design principles could be addressed in an expanded form; even an entire book of its own. We choose brevity for the sake of communicating core concepts with some fun facts to spice things up.

As you read the book, be mindful that the science and art of making things safe is ever changing and that some of the content we present is sure to age. So, complement our guidance with insights you may gain from other sources, ranging from books to technical articles to standards and more.

 


 

Usability Testing of Medical Devices - Second Edition

by Michael Wiklund, Jonathan Kendler, and Allison Strochlic

Usability Testing of Medical Devices covers the nitty-gritty of usability test planning, conducting, and results reporting. The book also discusses the government regulations and industry standards that motivate many medical device manufacturers to conduct usability tests.

Since publication of the first edition, the FDA and other regulatory groups have modified their regulations and expectations regarding how medical device manufacturers should approach usability testing. Reflecting these changes, this Second Edition provides updated guidance to readers with an interest or direct role in conducting a usability test of a medical device or system. Key updates involve the 2011 FDA guidance on human factors engineering, requirements set forth by the third edition of IEC 60601 and closely related IEC 62366-1:2015, linking usability test tasks to risk analysis results, and analyzing root causes of use errors that occur during usability tests.

Written by seasoned human factors specialists, Usability Testing of Medical Devices, Second Edition is an informative, practical, and up-to-date handbook for conducting usability tests of medical devices. The book helps ensure a smooth and painless development process―and thus, safe and effective medical devices. Buy the book.

 


 

Writing Human Factors Plans and Reports for Medical Technology Development

By Michael Wiklund, Laura Birmingham, and Stephanie Larsen

This book provides the foundation for developing specific human factors engineering (HFE) work products that are needed to meet the FDA's human factors engineering (HFE) guidance. The authors have created a fictitious company and product to generate concrete examples of the plans and reports developed during various stages of HFE. The book includes an HFE project plan, a formative usability test plan and report, a summative (i.e., validation) usability test plan and report, and an HFE report. These work products and additional content outline the activities necessary to develop safe and effective medical devices, making this book an ideal resource for anyone interested in the medical technology field. Buy the book.

 


 

Medical Device Use Error Root Cause Analysis
by Michael Wiklund, Andrea Dwyer, and Erin Davis

This book offers practical guidance on how to methodically discover and explain the root cause of a use error―a mistake―that occurs when someone uses a medical device. Covering medical devices used in the home and those used in clinical environments, the book presents informative case studies about the use errors (mistakes) that people make when using a medical device, the potential consequences, and design-based preventions.

 

Using clear illustrations and simple narrative explanations, the text:

  • Covers the fundamentals and language of root cause analysis and regulators’ expectations regarding the thorough analysis of use errors
  • Describes how to identify use errors, interview users about use errors, and fix user interface design flaws that could induce use errors
  • Reinforces the application of best practices in human factors engineering, including conducting both formative and summative usability tests 

Buy the book

 


 

Handbook of Human Factors in Medical Device Design

Edited by Matthew Weinger, Michael Wiklund, and Daryle Gardner-Bonneau

Developed to promote the design of safe, effective, and usable medical devices, Handbook of Human Factors in Medical Device Design provides a single convenient source of authoritative information to support evidence-based design and evaluation of medical device user interfaces using rigorous human factors engineering principles. It offers guidance on user-centric design supported by discussions of design issues, case studies, and examples. The book sets the foundation with coverage of fundamental topics such as aligning the interactive nature of medical devices to the expected use environments ranging from hospitals and ambulances to patients’ homes, drawing on anthropometric and biomechanical data to ensure that designs match the intended users’ bodies and physical abilities, and conducting usability tests and other evaluations to ensure that devices perform as intended. It then focuses on applied design issues, offering guidance on the design of specific types of devices and designing devices for particular use environments. Adapted in part from established design standards and conventions, the design guidance presented in this work distills professional judgment extracted from the contributing authors’ years of experience in applied analysis and design. Written in true handbook style, each chapter stands alone and includes tables, illustrations, and cross references, allowing you to quickly find the exact information you need. Most chapters begin with a general introduction to the selected topic, followed by the presentation of general and special design considerations and then specific, numbered design guidelines. The book also presents a listing of resources, literature, and website references. It not only focuses on the human factors issues that arise when developing medical devices, it supplies the necessary guidance to resolve them. Buy the book.

 


 

Designing Usability into Medical Products
by Michael Wiklund and Stephen Wilcox

Advocating a user-centered approach to medical technology design, Designing Usability into Medical Products covers the essential processes and specific techniques necessary to produce safe, effective, usable, and appealing medical systems and products. Written by experts on user-centered research, design, and evaluation, the book provides a range of alternative approaches to the subject. Wiklund and Wilcox explore how to make medical devices safe and effective by involving users in the design process. They discuss specific design and evaluation methods and tools, present case studies of user-friendly medical technologies and corporate human factors programs, and supply related resources for medical design professionals.

The book conveys an in-depth understanding of the user-centered design process, covers design methods for FDA compliance, and offers guidance on performing a variety of hands-on user research, user interface design, and user interface evaluation. The authors make a compelling case for treating the user's needs and preferences as a top design priority, rather than an afterthought. They demonstrate that high-quality customer interactions with systems and products leads to effective medical diagnosis and treatment, increases the physical and mental well being of patients and caregivers, and leads to commercial success in a crowded marketplace. Buy the book.

 


 

Usability in Practice

Editor: Michael Wiklund

This volume investigates how major corporations, such as Microsoft, Borland, Apple, Eastman Kodak, and Silicon Graphics, address usability issues. It presents case studies of each organization, outlining their program structures, program goals, and team members' responsibilities and resources. The book also addresses how usability is marketed inside the organization and to customers, as well as the lessons learned during the course of product development efforts. Each illustrated study includes advice that should help readers establish and manage their own program.

Out of print. Used copies might be available.

 


 

The Beauty of Unity-in-Variety

by Ruben Post

This thesis embarks from the idea that aesthetic appreciation of product designs is determined by simultaneously perceiving the two partially opposing dimensions of unity and variety. People actively avoid boredom by searching for variety because it challenges the senses and offers the potential of learning new information. Hence, people browse through thick catalogues, are attracted to colourful bouquets and let their eyes and hands explore a novel car interior. In doing so, these products offer stimulation to the senses. However, too much variety leads to confusion, as people fail to make sense of what they perceive. It is therefore that they appreciate perceiving unity at the same time, as it brings structure to variety; items in a catalogue are precisely ordered, flowers are neatly arranged and components of a car interior are carefully picked and organized. The above idea is captured in an age-old aesthetic principle, aptly named Unity-in-Variety (UiV). The principle states that perceiving a balance between the opposing forces of unity and variety is aesthetically preferred. While this principle has been argued to explain aesthetic appreciation for works of art, music and landscapes, little empirical research existed on this principle and, to our knowledge, none for product designs.

Available at Institutional Repository, Delft University in Delft, The Netherlands. Contact Ruben Post at ruben.post@ul.com.

 

 

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